Capillary damage in the area postrema by venom of the northern black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus molossus)

Research Report

OpenAccess
J Venom Res 
(2014), Vol 5, 1-5

Published online: 04 April 2014

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Capillary damage in the area postrema by venom of the northern black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus molossus)

David Meléndez-Martínezα, Eduardo Macias-Rodríguezα, Alejandra Vargas-Caraveoß, Alejandro Martínez-Martínezß, Ana Gatica-Colima¥, Luis Fernando Plenge-Tellecheaα,*

αLaboratorio de Biología Molecular y Bioquímica, Departamento de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, México

ßLaboratorio de Bioquímica y Neuroquímica, Departamento de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, México

¥Laboratorio de Ecología y Biodiversidad Animal, Departamento de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, México

*Correspondence to: Luis Fernando Plenge Tellechea, Email: fplenge@uacj.mx, Tel/Fax: +52 656 6881800 ext. 1621

Received: 10 January 2014; Revised: 11 March 2014; Accepted: 27 March 2014

© Copyright The Author(s). First Published by Library Publishing Media. This is an open access article, published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0). This license permits non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction of the article, provided the original work is appropriately acknowledged with correct citation details.

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ABSTRACT

The Northern black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus molossus) venom is mainly hemotoxic, hemorrhagic, and neurotoxic. Its effects in the central nervous system are unknown and only poorly described for all Viperidae species in general. This is why we are interested in describe the damage induced by C. m. molossus venom in rat brain, particularly in the area postrema capillaries. Four C. m. molossus venom doses were tested (0.02, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mg/kg) injected intramuscularly at the lower limb, incubated by 24 hours and the brains were harvested. Area postrema coronal sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin, and examined to observe the venom effect in quantity of capillaries and porphology. Starting from the 0.10 mg/kg treatment we observed lysed extravasated erythrocytes and also capillary breakdown, as a consequence of hemorrhages appearance. The number of capillaries decreased significantly in response to the venom dose increment. Hemorrhages could be caused by the metalloproteinase activity on the basal membrane and the apoptosis generated by L-amino acid oxidases. Hemolysis could be caused by phospholipase A2 hemotoxic effect. We conclude that C. m. molossus crude venom produces hemolysis, capillary breakdown, hemorrhages, and the reduction in number of capillaries in the area postrema.

KEYWORDS: Crotalus molossus molossus, area postrema, metalloproteinase, L-amino acid oxidase, phospholipase A2